Chapter: Types of haj
Haj for Immature
Question 1: Can the children also perform Haj?
Answer: Yes. sayyidunā Abdullāĥ Ibn Abbās رَضِیَ اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَنْهُمَا has said: The noble prophet صَلَّى اللهُ تَعَالٰى عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِه وَسَلَّم came across a caravan at rauḥā and asked them, Who are you? They replied: We are muslims. Then they said: Who are you? The Holy prophet صَلَّى اللهُ تَعَالٰى عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِه وَسَلَّم replied: I am the prophet of Allah. A woman among them lifted up a child and said: Will his haj be valid? The beloved and blessed prophet صَلَّى اللهُ تَعَالٰى عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِه وَسَلَّم replied: Yes, and you will also be granted a reward for this. (Muslim, pp. 697, Ḥadīš 1336)
Question 2: If a child performs haj, will his Farḍ be fulfilled?
Answer: No. one of the prerequisites for haj being Farḍ is ‘puberty’. A’lā Ḥaḍrat Imām Aḥmad Razā Khān عَـلَيْهِ رَحْمَةُ الـرَّحْمٰن has stated:hajj is not Farḍ upon a child. If he performs Haj, it will be a nafl one and only he will be granted a reward. However, the father or the guardian etc. of the child will gain the reward of teaching him. If conditions exist after the child has reached puberty, Haj will become Farḍ upon him. The Haj he performed in childhood will not suffice.’ (Fatāwā Razawiyyaĥ , vol. 10, pp. 775)
Question 3: How many types of children are there with regard to the rites of Haj
Answer: There are two types of children in this regard:
A mature child is the one who can distinguish between cleanness and uncleanness, sweet and bitter and is aware that Islam is a means of salvation. (Irshād-us-Sārī Ḥāshiyaĥ Manāsik, pp. 37)
An immature child is the one who cannot distinguish between the aforementioned things and is unaware of them.
Question 4: Will a mature child have to perform the rites of haj himself?
Answer: Yes. A mature child should perform all acts of haj himself. If he even misses Ramī etc. then he will not be required to pay expiation. (Baĥār-e-sharī’at, vol. 1, pp. 1075)
Question 5: If a mature child is able to perform some of rites of haj himself but unable to perform some others, can he authorise anyone else to perform those rites on his behalf?
Answer: Allāmaĥ Alī Qārī عَـلَيْهِ رَحْـمَةُ الـلّٰـهِ الۡـبَارِی has said: It is incorrect to authorise anyone to perform such rites on behalf of the mature child that he can perform himself, whereas it is correct to authorise anyone to perform such acts on his behalf that he cannot perform himself. However, if a child cannot himself offer the two Rak’āt nafl salāĥ after tawāf, no other person can offer it on his behalf.(Al-Maslak-ul-Mutaqassiṭ lil-Qārī, pp. 113).
Method of immature child’s Haj
Question 6: How will an immature child perform the rites of Haj?
Answer: The rites for which an intention is required will be performed by the guardian, whereas the child can perform the rites for which no intention is required. The Islamic jurists رَحِمَهُمُ الـلّٰـهُ تَـعَالٰی have said: If an immature child puts on Iḥrām himself and performs the rites of haj, the haj will not be valid. His guardian should perform the rites of haj on his behalf. However, the guardian will not offer the two Rak’āt nafl salāĥ of tawāf on behalf of the child. If his father and brother both accompany him, the father should perform the rites (Arkān). (‘Ālamgīrī, vol. 1, pp. 236; Baĥār-e-sharī’at, vol. 1, pp. 1075)
Allamah Maulana Mufti Amjad Ali A’ẓami: عَـلَيْهِ رَحْـمَةُ الـلّٰـهِ الۡـقَـوِی has stated: Immature children cannot perform the acts for which an intention is required such as Iḥrām or Ṭawāf, but rather anyone should perform these acts on behalf of them. As for the acts for which an intention is not required such as Wuqūf-e-‘Arafaĥ these children can perform them. (Baĥār-e-sharī’at, vol. 1, pp. 1046)
Question 7: Is it necessary to make the children perform ghusl before they put on iḥram?
Answer: Yes. Presented below is a summary of a jurisprudential clause stated on page 557 of volume 3 of Fatāwā Shāmī: Both mature and immature children should perform ghusl. However, the difference is that it is Mustaḥab for a mature child to perform the Ghusl himself and it is Mustaḥab for a guardian to order the mature child to perform Ghusl. As for an immature child, it is Mustaḥab for the guardian to help him perform Ghusl or ask his mother etc. to help him perform ghusl.
Question 8: Will an immature child be made to put on Iḥrām?
Answer: Yes. Removing the stitched clothes from the body of the immature child, the guardian or anyone else should make him put on a shawl and a Taĥband. Thereafter, the father or, if the father is not present, then brother, or if the brother is not also present, then any other close blood relative should make the intention of Iḥrām on behalf of the child and prevent him from those acts forbidden for muḥrim.
Allāmaĥ Maulānā Muftī Muhammad Amjad ‘Alī A’ẓamī عَـلَيْهِ رَحْـمَةُ الـلّٰـهِ الۡـقَـوِی : has stated: The stitched clothes of a child should be removed before his guardian or anyone of his blood relatives puts on Iḥrām on his behalf. Make him wear a shawl and a Taĥband and prevent him from every act which is not permissible for a Muḥrim.(Baĥār-e-sharī’at, vol. 1, pp. 1075)
A mature child will make the intention of Iḥrām himself and the guardian cannot put on Iḥrām on his behalf. It is stated in Shāmī:‘If a child is mature, he will have to put on Iḥrām himself. It is not permissible for the guardian to put on Iḥrām on behalf of this child.’ (Rad-dul-muḥtār, vol. 3, 535)
If a mature child can put on Iḥrām himself, he will have to do it himself. The guardian cannot put on Iḥrām on his behalf, nor will the mature child become a Muḥrim if the guardian puts on Iḥrām. However, if a mature child cannot put on Iḥrām himself, the guardian will put on Iḥrām on his behalf.
Question 9: Will a guardian have to offer the Nafl of Iḥrām on behalf of an immature child?
Answer: No. A guardian cannot offer the Nafl of Iḥrām on behalf of an immature child.
Method of intention and labbaik on behalf of an immature child
Question 10: Please let us know about the method of labbayk and the intention of Iḥrām on behalf of an immature child.
Answer: A guardian should make the intention of Iḥrām on behalf of an immature child and say: ‘اَحۡرَمۡتُ عَنۡ فُلَانٍ’ i.e. I put on Iḥrām on behalf of so-and-so [Mention the child’s name instead of saying so-and-so]. Similarly, invoke Talbiyaĥ on his behalf in the following way: ‘لَبَّيۡكَ عَنۡ فُلَانٍ’ [Mention his name instead of saying so-and-so and complete the Talbiyaĥ].
The intention in Arabic will only be valid when its meaning is known. One can also make the intention in his mother tongue or in Urdu. For example, if the child’s name is Ĥilāl Razā, make the intention like this: ‘I put on Iḥrām on behalf of Ĥilāl Razā’. Keep it in mind that it is a condition to make the intention in the heart, while uttering it verbally is Mustaḥab. If one has not uttered his intention verbally, there is no problem. To recite the Talbiyaĥ is necessary. It should be recited to such an audible voice that the reciter can hear it if there is no difficulty in hearing. Then say the following:
لَبَّیْكَ عَنْ هِلال رضا اَللّٰھُمَّ لَبَّیْكَ ط لَبَّیْكَ لَا شَرِیْكَ لَكَ لَبَّیْكَ ط
اِنَّ الْحَمْدَ وَ النِّعْمَۃَ لَكَ وَ الْمُلْكَ ط لَا شَرِیْكَ لَكَ ط
Method of istilām of hajr e aswad and intention of tawāf on behalf of an immature child
Question 11: Please let us know about the intention of Ṭawāf and the method of Istilām of Ḥajar-ul-Aswad on behalf of an immature child.
Answer: Although it is sufficient to make the intention in the heart, it is better to utter it verbally. For example ‘I intend to perform the seven rounds of tawāf on behalf of hilāl razā’. Afterwards, the istilām being performed, will be also on behalf of the child.
Question 12: Will the guardian make a child perform tawāf by walking him or carrying him in the lap?
Answer: Whichever method is convenient for him, he can adopt.
Question 13: Can guardian make the intention of his own tawāf while walking a child or carrying him in the lap?
Answer: He can do so. In fact, he should do it. By doing this, the tawāf of both of them will get performed. Remember that Istilām will have to be performed twice in every round once on behalf of himself and once on behalf of the child.
Question 14: How will a child perform the tawāf?
Answer: A mature child should perform the tawāf himself and offer the nawāfil of tawāf, whereas the guardian of an immature child should make him perform the tawāf. However, the guardian should not offer the two rak’āt of tawāf on behalf of this child.(Baĥār-e-sharī’at, vol. 1, pp. 1075)
Question 15: How can a child be made to perform ramī?
Answer: A mature child will perform ramī himself. Those accompanying an immature child should perform Ramī on his behalf. It is better to place stones onto the hand of the child and help perform ramī. (Mansik mutawassiṭ, pp. 247; Fatāwā razawiyyaĥ, vol. 10, pp. 667; Baĥār-e-sharī’at, vol. 1, pp. 1148)
Question 16: If a child misses any of haj rites or commits such an act which makes expiation or dam due, what is the ruling in this regard?
Answer: If a child misses some act or commits a prohibited act, it is not wājib upon him to do qaḍā or pay expiation. similarly, if the guardian of an immature child puts on iḥrām on his behalf and the child commits some prohibited act, the father is not required to do qaḍā or pay expiation.(‘Ālamgīrī, vol. 1, pp. 236; Baĥār-e-sharī’at, vol. 1, pp. 1075).
Question 17: What will one have to do if a child invalidates the Haj?
Answer: If a child invalidates the Hajj, no Dam is Wājib upon him. It is also not Wājib to do Qaḍā of Hajj even if a mature child has done so. (‘Ālamgīrī, vol. 1, pp. 236; Rad-dul-Muḥtār, vol. 3, pp. 673)
Question 18: What is the ruling of a ritual sacrifice of Haj offered by a child?
Answer: Regardless of which a child is mature or immature; no ritual sacrifice (of Hajj Tamattu’ or Hajj Qirān) is Wājib upon him. (Al-Maslak-ul-mutaqassiṭ lil-Qārī, pp. 263) The ritual sacrifice of Hajj Ifrād is not Wājib even upon adults.
Question 19: If the guardian wants to perform a ritual sacrifice of Haj on behalf of a child, can he do it or not?
Answer: He can do so. But he should do it with his own money. If he spends the money of a child, he will have to make up for it. It means that he will have to return that money to the child.
Method of a child’s Umrah
Question 20: Can a child be taken to perform the umrah? If so what is the method?
Answer: Yes, a child can be taken to perform umrah. The previously mentioned same rulings of mature and immature child will apply here. However, one should ponder over the rulings of taking a very little child to the masjid. The ruling is that if it is highly probable that a child would defecate or urinate in the Masjid, it is Makrūĥ Taḥrīmī to take him into the masjid, otherwise it is Makrūĥ Tanzīĥī.
Question 21: Should a child be made to perform Ḥalq or Qaṣr?
Answer: Yes. However, a little girl should be made to perform Qaṣr. If there is a baby girl or a very little one, there is no harm in performing her Qaṣr.
Child and nafli tawaf
Question 22: What is the ruling for a child as regards a nafl tawaf?
Answer: A mature child should make the intention himself and offer the post-Ṭawāf Nafl Ṣalāĥ, whereas the guardian should make the intention on behalf of an immature child. There is no need to offer the Nawafil of tawaf.
Question 23: If a minor reaches puberty after he has entered Mīqāt without (putting on) Iḥrām, will Dam become Wājib upon him?
Answer: No. It is cited on page 1192 (volume 1) of Bahar-e-shariat: If a minor reaches puberty after he has passed Miqat and put on Iḥram, no Dam is necessary. Similarly, if he reaches puberty at Ḥil i.e. outside the Ḥaram but within the limits of Miqat, the rulings of Ḥillī will be applied. It means that if he wants to go for Haj or umrah, he should put on Iḥram at Ḥil, or if he does not want to go for Haj or umrah, the rulings of Ḥaramī will be applied. In short, he will put on Iḥram for Haj within the Ḥaram, as for umrah he will put on Iḥram outside the Ḥaram. If he doesn’t want to perform either, there is no need to put on Iḥram.
Question 24: Can a child be taken to Masjid-un-Nabawī or not?
Answer: The Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللهُ تَعَالٰى عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖوَسَلَّم has said, ‘Save the Masājid from children and the insane and trading and quarrels and raising voice and inflicting punishment and unsheathing swords.’(Ibn Mājaĥ, vol. 1, pp. 415, Ḥadīš, 750)
If it is highly probable that a child or an insane person if taken into the Masjid would defecate or urinate in the Masjid then it is Ḥarām otherwise Makrūĥ. People who take the shoes into the Masjid should make sure that if the shoes are stained with uncleanness, it should be cleaned off insomuch that there remains neither uncleanness nor foul smell. However, if you have cleaned shoes in such a way that neither there is the risk of the Masjid being unclean nor is there any foul smell, then it is not impermissible. Remember that walking into the Masjid with shoes on is the disrespect of the Masjid even if the shoes are clean.
It is not allowed to take small children, the insane (or an unconscious person or the one captured by a jinn) into the Masjid even for spiritual remedies etc. A baby cannot be brought into the Masjid even if it is packed into a napkin etc. If you have ever committed the mistake of bringing such children into the Masjid, repent instantly and make a firm intention of not doing it again. However, it is permissible to bring the children into Finā-e-Masjid, say the Imām’s room, provided one does not have to pass through the actual part of the Masjid.If these are the manners of entering into an ordinary Masjid then the manners of entering into the Masjid-ul-Ḥarām and Masjid-un-Nabawī are absolutely great. A devotee of Rasūl can realise it.
There is a great need to secure the Masjidayn Karīmayn from the children. Nowadays the children run, shouting and sometimes they even defecate or urinate inside the Masjidayn Karīmayn. Alas! Those who take them into there do not pay any attention. Without any doubt, the children are immature and innocent, but those who take them there are at fault. If a mature child is taken into the Masjid, pay a close attention to him lest he should start playing around and interrupting those worshipping Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ.
Child and paying visit to the Raudah-e-Anwar
Question 25: How an immature child be taken in front of the Golden Grille?
Answer: As for this purpose, he will have to be taken to the Masjid. We have just discussed the rulings. Therefore, make him behold the Great Green Dome from outside the Masjid.
Question 26: Are the rulings for a child girl about Hajj and ‘Umraĥ the same as mentioned earlier?