Chapter: Holy places now inside kaba
Daar e Arqam
Hadrat Arqam Bin Abi Al-Arqam radhiAllahu anhu was from the first batch of muslims who adopted the faith of Islam. His home was on the mount Safa at Makkah (Al-Mustadarik Tazkirah arqam bin Abi Al-Arqam, 3, 502).
The house getting famous by the name of daare arqam has an importance in the Islamic history. This house is also called by the blessed name “Daarul Islam” (Ibn Saad, Al-tabqaath al-kubra, tazkirah arqam bin abi al-arqam, 3, 243, daar al-saadir, Beirut May 1985).
The son of Arqam radhiAllahuta’la anhu, the Muhaddith Uthman bin Arqam used to say: “أنا ابن سبع الإسلام،أسلم أبي سابع سبعة “ that is to say that me (Uthman) a son of such a personality for whom 7th grade has been assigned in Islam. My father was the seventh person to accept the faith of Islam. ((14) Asad Al-Ghaaya, Tazkirah Ammar Bin Yaasar radhiAllahu anhu, 4,44 (15) Ibn Hishaam, Islam Umar Bin Al-Khattaab radhiAllahu anhu, 1, 383, Ibn Atheer, al-kaamil fiththaareekh, 2, 58, Daarul Kutub, Beirut, May 1967).
When the idolaters of Makkah could not stop the spread of Islam, they shortened the life of the weak Islam. They prohibited the prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam and other Muslims from praying independently in the House of Allah. They interfere in the recitation of Al-Qur’an and remembrance of Allah, the Glorious, indulge in scuffles and mostly their activities were profoundly disrespectful with full of contempt. The situation was too worse that it was very difficult and was becoming impossible for the Muslims to perform prayers in the corners or in the valleys, freely. Ibn Ishaq narrates: “Once Muslims were praying in one of the valleys of Makkah. This was noticed by a group of idolaters who started abusing the Muslims. This escalated into a quarrel and fighting. Hadrat sa’ad Bin Abi Waqas radhiAllahu anhu hit a person with a bone of the camel, due to which his head was injured severely.” This is the first bloodshed for Islam. (Ibn Hishaam, Mubadah Rasoolullaahi sallallaahu alahi wasallam, qoma, wamaa kaana minhum, 1, 263).
These were the serious circumstances, when the prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam took shelter along with other Muslims at Daare Arqam so that Muslims could bow their heads before the Rab, with complete concentration. Therefore, Daare Arqam became the center for the Dawah activities of Islam, where appropriate training to the aspirants were imparted and purification of hearts was carried out. Ibn Sa’ad narrates:
کان النبي ﷺ يسکن فيها في أول الإسلام وفيها يدعو الناس إلی الإسلام فأسلم فيها قوم کثير''یعنی
The prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam used to stay in this house (Daare Arqam) in the initial period of Islam preaching people and many of them entered into the faith of Islam here. (Ibn Sa’ad Tazkirah Arqamain Abi Al-Arqam 3, 242, Al-Mustadarik, tazkirah Arqam Bin Abi Al-Arqam, 3, 502).
Ibn Jareer Tabi too in the Makki Ahad Nubuwwat mentions Daare Arqam as the center for preaching activities, where a number of people have accepted Islam. Therefore, he writes while mentioning Hadrat Arqam:
وکان داره علی الصفا، وهي الدار التي کان النبي ﷺ يکون فيها في أول الإسلام وفيها دعا الناس إلی الإسلام فأسلم فيها قوم کثير
That is to say: “The house of Hadrat Arqam was on the mount Safa. This is the house where the prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam were staying and preaching Islam in the initial period. Here people in groups accepted Islam. (Al-Tabri, Mohammad Bin Jareer, Tareekhul Umam wal-malook, 3, 230, Al-Matba’atul husainiyah)
Allama Ibn Abdul Barr writes about Hadrat Arqam in his book Shahriya Aafaq book Al-Isti’aab:
وفي دار الأرقم ؓ بن أبي الأرقم هٰذا کان النبيﷺمستخفيا من قريش بمکة يدعو الناس فيها إلی الإسلام في أول الإسلام حتیٰ خرج عنها، وکانت داره بمکة علی الصفا فأسلم فيها جماعة کثيرة
That is to say that: This is the same Arqam Bin Abi Arqam in whose home the holy prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam were staying, remaining unaware to the Quraish of Makkah. Before coming openly to give a call of Islam, the holy Prophet used to stay here and preach from here. The home of Hadrat Arqam was situated on the mountain Safa. Therefore a big group of people accepted Islam in this place. (Al-Isti’aab fi ma’rifiyah al-as-haab, tazkirah arqamain Abi Al-Arqam, 1, 131, daarul Jaleel, Beirut 1992).
Daare Arqam was not only the shelter for the weak Islam. But it was also used for educating and training the companions of the prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam and also for praying in congregation, indulging in remembrance of Allah, and asking supplications, regularly. In those supplications, the famous supplication where the prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam were asking Allah Subhanahuta’la to grant eimaan (faith) to either Umar Bin Khattab radhiAllahu anhu or to (abu Jahal) Umar Bin Hishaam were there. It has been said by Ibn Ishaq that one day, Hadrat Umar radhiAllahu anhu were on the way to kill (God forbid) the prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam but on the way he heard the recitation of Surah Ta-ha by his sister Fatima Bint Khattab that brought a radical change in him. On seeing his inclination towards Islam Hadrat Khabaabeen Arth disclosed to him in the tone of a good news what he had heard the prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam asking this supplication:
اللّٰهم أيد الإسلام بأبي الحکم بن هشام أو بعمر بن الخطاب
That is to say that “Oh Allah, make either Abu Al-Hakam Bin Hishaam or Umar Bin Khattab radhiAllahu anhu support Islam”. Therefore, Hadrat Umar radhiAllahu anhu went straight to Daare Arqam and accepted Islam.
Ibn Saad has divided those who migrated from Makkah in two phases, identifying the ones who accepted Islam after making the Daare Arqam a center for Islam at Makkah. Ibn Saad while mentioning the following respected companions (sahaba kiraam), had specifically mentioned that these companions had accepted Islam prior to coming to Daare Arqam. They were: Hadrat Khudaija, Abu Bakr, Uthman, Ali Al-Murtaza, Zaid Bin Harith, Ubaidah Bin Harith, Abu Huzaifah Bin Uthbah, Abdullah Bin Hajash, Abdur Rahmaan Bin Auf, Abdullah Bin Masood, Khabab Bin Al-Arth, Masood Bin Rabee’ Waqid Bin Abdullah, Aamir Bin Faheerah, AbuSalma Bin Asad, Saeed Bin Zair, Aamir Bin Rabee’ah, Khanees Bin Hizafa, Abdullah Bin Madh’oon and Hatib Bin Umar radhiAllahu anhum ajmaeen.
In the same way, Ibn Saad had also identified the people who came to Daare Arqam and accepted Islam keeping their hand on the hand of the prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam. The following sahaba kiraam were included in the list: Harat Suhaib, Ammar Bin Yaser, Mas’ab Bin Umair, Umar Bin Khattab, Aqil Bin Abi Bakr, Aamir Bin Abi Bakr, Ayas Bin Abi Bakr and Khalid Bin Abi Bakr radhiAllahu anhum ajmaeen. (Ibn Saad, 3,115,425,273).
A few points available from the abovementioned clarifications from the islamic historians and biographers.
1. Those Truth Seekers who came here, were given the invitation to Islam by the prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam and whoever came he received beneficence and guidance before he left.
2. Daare Arqam was a center of peace of mind and tranquility for the followers of Islam. The destitute, persecuted and tortured slaves use to come here to take shelter.
3. Here the remembrance of Allah, sermons, explanation of the duties were continuously carried out. The beloved prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasalaam were supplicating in congregation with the dedicated followers. With the explanation of Hadrat Khabbab radhiAllahu anhu, it becomes clear that the benefactor of humanity even during the nights were beseeching and supplicating to Allah for the guidance of the worship of Allah the Glorious.
4. At this house, reviews of the performance of the preachers were carried out. The further planning and programs were prepared for the preaching apart from training the preachers. Hadrat Abu Bakr, Khabbaab Bin Arth, Abdullah Bin Masood and Mas’ab Bin Umair radhiAllahu anhum ajmaeen were worth mentioning to be the trained scholars from Daare Arqam.
5. The Daare Arqam apart from being Daarul Islam for the Muslims, it was a Daar Ash-Shura’ where by mutual consultation the plans for further preaching were used to be chalked out. Migration to Habsha was also planned here by mutual consultation. In the history of Islam this place had the same status as of Darul Nadwa for the Quraish.
6. Taking shelter in Daare Arqam by the prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam was a historical phase. This was also an incident of pride like The Oath of Al-Fuzul, The war of Al-Fujjar and the Year of Al-Feel (elephant). In the way the idolaters of Makkah determine their dates connected with the historical incidence, in the same way the Muslims historians too assess and determine the dates based on the historical incidences during the period of prophet-hood, as before and after the entry of the prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam in the house of Arqam.
7. Hadrat Arqam rashiAllahu anhu was amongst the people who had accepted Islam in the very beginning. Hence, it was very much possible that he would have dedicated his house for the activities of preaching Islam, and the prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam could have made Daare Arqam as a Center for preaching Islamic activities and inviting people to the fold of Islam.
8. In the light of the different explanations of the historians of Islam it could be said that the stay of the prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam at Daare Arqam would have been more than an year.
9. The idolaters were fully aware of the Muslims taking shelter in Daare Arqam, but they were unaware of the inside activities and plans of Daare Arqam.